My Hack Stuff https://myhackstuff.com Exploring Things on Internet Wed, 18 Apr 2018 11:10:12 +0000 en hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.5 Kalibrating Device for GSM and Decoding ADS-B messages https://myhackstuff.com/kalibrating-device-decoding-ads-b-messages/ https://myhackstuff.com/kalibrating-device-decoding-ads-b-messages/#respond Wed, 18 Apr 2018 11:09:35 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=962 As I have mentioned in my previous article that I’ll discuss Kalibrating Device for GSM and Decoding ADS-B messages in my upcoming article so here is the useful guide to get familiar with these methods. This article is the second part of Software Defined Radios RTLSDR also allows us to view GSM traffic using a tool …

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As I have mentioned in my previous article that I’ll discuss Kalibrating Device for GSM and Decoding ADS-B messages in my upcoming article so here is the useful guide to get familiar with these methods.

This article is the second part of Software Defined Radios

RTLSDR also allows us to view GSM traffic using a tool called kal or kalibrate-rtl. This tool can scan for GSM base stations in a frequency band. In this recipe, we will learn about using kalibrate and then confirm the channel in gqrx.


Following are the steps to use kalibrate:

Most of the countries use the GSM900 band. In the USA, it’s 850. We will use the following command to scan for GSM base stations:
kal -s GSM900 -g 40
The following screenshot shows the output of the preceding command:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

In a few minutes, it will show us a list of base stations:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

We note the frequency; in our case, we will use 947.6 MHz along with the offset.
Now we open GQRX and enter it in the Receiver Options window:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

We can see in the waterfall that the device is able to catch signals perfectly.
Now we will look at this data at the packet level. We will use a tool known as gr-gsm.
It can be installed using apt install gr-gsm:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

Once it is done, if we type grgsm_ and press the Tab key, we will see a list of different tools available for us.

First, we will use grgsm_livemon to monitor the GSM packets live. We’ll open the terminal and type grgsm_livemon:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

In the new window that opens, we will switch to the frequency we captured in the previous steps using kalibrate:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

We can zoom into a particular range by dragging and selecting the area on the graphical window.
In the new terminal window, we start Wireshark by typing wireshark.
We then set the adapter to Loopback: lo and start our packet capture.


Next, we add the filter gsmtap:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

We should see the packets in the info window. We should see a packet with label System Information Type 3; let’s open it:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

We will see the system information such as Mobile Country Code, Network Code, and Location Area Code:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

Now with this article, we have learned how GSM packets travel.

Here are some great videos to give you a better understanding of GSM sniffing.

Decoding ADS-B messages with Dump1090

ADS-B stands for Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast. It is a system in which electronic equipment onboard an aircraft automatically broadcasts the precise location of the aircraft via a digital data link.

As described in the official readme of the tool, Dump1090 is a Mode S decoder specifically designed for RTLSDR devices.

The main features are:

  1. Robust decoding of weak messages. With mode1090, many users observed improved range compared to other popular decoders.
  2. Network support—TCP30003 stream (MSG5), raw packets, HTTP.
  3. Embedded HTTP server that displays the currently detected aircrafts on Google Maps.
  4. Single-bit error correction using 24-bit CRC.
  5. Ability to decode DF11 and DF17 messages.
  6. Ability to decode DF formats such as DF0, DF4, DF5, DF16, DF20, and DF21, where the checksum is XOR-ed with the ICAO address by brute-forcing the checksum field using ICAO addresses, which we’ve covered.
  7. Decode raw IQ samples from file (using the –ifile command-line switch).
  8. Interactive CLI mode where aircrafts currently detected are shown as a list, refreshing as more data arrives.
  9. CPR coordinate decoding and track calculation from velocity.
  10. TCP server streaming and receiving raw data to/from connected clients (using –net).

In this section, we will use the tool to look at air traffic with visuals.

Following are the steps to use Dump1090:

We can download the tool from the Git repo using the command

git clone https://github.com/antirez/dump1090.git:

Once downloaded, we go the folder and run make.
We should now have an executable. We can run the tool using the following command:
./dump1090 –interactive -net

The following screenshot shows the output of the preceding command:

Kalibrating Device Decoding ADS-B messages

In a few minutes, we should see the flights, and by opening the browser to http://localhost:8080, we will be able to see the flights on the map as well.


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How to use Software Defined Radios https://myhackstuff.com/software-defined-radios/ https://myhackstuff.com/software-defined-radios/#respond Wed, 18 Apr 2018 10:40:25 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=952 In this article we’ll cover how to use software defined radios. This will include following topics Introduction to radio frequency scanners Hands-on with RTLSDR scanner Playing around with gqrx Kalibrating device for GSM tapping Decoding ADS-B messages with Dump1090 The term software-defined radio means, implementation of hardware-based radio components such as modulators, demodulators and tuners …

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In this article we’ll cover how to use software defined radios. This will include following topics

  • Introduction to radio frequency scanners
  • Hands-on with RTLSDR scanner
  • Playing around with gqrx
  • Kalibrating device for GSM tapping
  • Decoding ADS-B messages with Dump1090

The term software-defined radio means, implementation of hardware-based radio components such as modulators, demodulators and tuners using a software. In this chapter we will cover different recipes and look at multiple ways on how RTLSDR can be used to play around with frequencies and the data being transported through it.

Radio frequency scanners

RTLSDR is a very cheap (around 20 USD) software-defined radio that uses a DVB-T TV tuner dongle. In this recipe, we will cover connecting an RTLSDR device with Kali Linux to test whether it was detected successfully.


We will need some hardware for this recipe. It’s easily available for purchase from Amazon or from here. Kali already has tools for us to get going with it.

We connect our device and it should be detected in Kali Linux. It’s common for the devices to behave inaccurately. Here is the recipe to run the test:

We will first run the test using the command:
rtl_test
The following screenshot shows the output of the preceding command:

software defined radios

We may see some packet drops. This is because of trying this in a VM setup with only USB 2.0.

In case there are a lot of packet drops, we can test it by setting a lower sampling rate with rtl_test -s 10000000:

software defined radios

Now, we are all set to move on to the next recipe and play around with our device.

Hands-on with RTLSDR scanner

RTLSDR scanner is a cross-platform GUI that can be used for spectrum analysis. It will scan the given frequency range and display the output in a spectrogram.


Here is the recipe to run rtlsdr-scanner:

We connect RTLSDR to the system and start the scanner using the command:
rtlsdr-scanner
The following screenshot shows the output of the preceding command:

software defined radios

We should see a new window open, showing the GUI interface of the tool; here we can simply enter the frequency range on which we want to perform the scan and click on Start scan:

It will take some time to see a sweep of frequencies, and then we will see the result in graphical format:

software defined radios

If the application stops responding, it is recommended you lower the range and choose Single as the Mode instead of continuous.

Playing around with gqrx

The gqrx tool is an open source software-defined radio (SDR) receiver powered by the GNU radio and the Qt graphical toolkit.

It has many features such as:

  1. Discovering devices connected to a computer
  2. Processing I/Q data
  3. AM, SSB, CW, FM-N, and FM-W (mono and stereo) demodulators
  4. Recording and playing back audio to/from WAV file
  5. Recording and playing back raw baseband data
  6. Streaming audio output over UDP

In this section, we will cover basics of gqrx and another tool, RTLSDR.

Following is the guide to use gqrx:

We can install gqrx using the command:

apt install gqrx

Once it’s done, we run the tool by typing gqrx. We choose our device from the drop-down menu in the window that opens and click OK:

software defined radios

Now the GQRX application opens, and on the right-side in the receiver window, we choose the frequency we want to view. Then we go to the file and click on Start DSP.


Now we see a waterfall and we should start hearing the sound in our speaker. We can even change the frequency we are listening to using the up and down buttons in the Receiver Options window:

software defined radios

We will look at an example of a car key remote, which is used to lock/unlock a car.
Once we press the button a couple of times, we will see the change in the waterfall showing the difference in the signal:

software defined radios

We can record the signal in the record window and then save it. This can be later decoded and transmitted back to the car using a transponder to unlock it.

To capture the data at 443 MHz, we can use the command:
rtl_sdr -f 443M – | xxd



The following screenshot shows the output of the preceding command:

software defined radios

That’s it for today I’ll discuss remaining content in other article and put link here (you can read it here) thanks for reading. Now let me recommend you some other practical guides about penetration testing of Remote Access Protocols, Remote Desktop ProtocolSSH Network Protocol, Network RoutersWordPress website using WPSeku,

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Industrial Agriculture (History Briefly Explained) https://myhackstuff.com/industrial-agriculture-history/ https://myhackstuff.com/industrial-agriculture-history/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 10:47:44 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=939 Many of the innovations introduced to agriculture by the scientific and Industrial revolutions paved the way for a qualitative change in the nature of agricultural production, particularly in advanced capitalist countries. This qualitative change became known as industrial agriculture. It is characterized by heavy use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides; extensive irrigation; large-scale animal husbandry …

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Many of the innovations introduced to agriculture by the scientific and Industrial revolutions paved the way for a qualitative change in the nature of agricultural production, particularly in advanced capitalist countries. This qualitative change became known as industrial agriculture. It is characterized by heavy use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides; extensive irrigation; large-scale animal husbandry involving animal confinement and the use of hormones and antibiotics; reliance on heavy machinery; the growth of agribusiness and the commensurate decline of family farming; and the transport of food over vast distances. Industrial agricultural has been credited with lowering the cost of food production and hence food prices, while creating profitable businesses and many jobs in the agricultural chemistry and biotechnology industries. It has also allowed farmers and agribusinesses to export a large percentage of their crops to other countries. Farm exports have enabled farmers to expand their markets and have contributed to aiding a country’s trade balance.



At the same time, industrial-scale agriculture has had adverse environmental consequences, such as intensive use of water, energy, and chemicals. Many aquifers and other water reservoirs are being drained faster than they can be renewed. The energy required to produce nitrogen-based synthetic fertilizers, to operate heavy farm equipment, to manufacture pesticides, and to transport food over long distances involves burning large amounts of fossil fuels, which in turn contribute to air pollution and global warming. The use of synthetic fertilizers has affected the ability of soil to retain moisture, thus increasing the use of irrigation systems. Fertilizer runoff has also stimulated algae growth in water systems. Finally, herbicides and insecticides in many cases have contaminated ground and surface waters. See also Environment.




During the 20th century, a reaction developed to industrial agriculture known as sustainable agriculture. While industrial agriculture aims to produce as much food as possible at the lowest cost, the main goal of sustainable agriculture is to produce economically viable, nutritious food without damaging natural resources such as farmland and the local watershed. Examples of sustainable agricultural practices include rotating crops from field to field to prevent the depletion of nutrients from the soil, using fertilizers produced naturally on the farm rather than synthetic products, and planting crops that will grow without needing extensive irrigation. Sustainable agricultural practices have seen great success in parts of the developing world where resources such as arable land and water are in short supply and must be carefully utilized and conserved. See also Organic Farming.

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Scientific Agriculture (History Explained) https://myhackstuff.com/scientific-agriculture-history/ https://myhackstuff.com/scientific-agriculture-history/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 10:39:59 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=936 By the 16th century, population was increasing in Europe, and agricultural production was again expanding. The nature of agriculture there and in other regions was to change considerably in succeeding centuries. Several reasons can be identified for this trend. Europe was cut off from Asia and the Middle East by an extension of Ottoman power. New …

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By the 16th century, population was increasing in Europe, and agricultural production was again expanding. The nature of agriculture there and in other regions was to change considerably in succeeding centuries. Several reasons can be identified for this trend. Europe was cut off from Asia and the Middle East by an extension of Ottoman power. New economic theories were put into practice, directly affecting agriculture. Continued wars between England and France, within each of these countries, and in Germany consumed capital and human resources.

A new period of global exploration and colonization was undertaken to circumvent the Ottoman Empire’s control of the spice trade, to provide homes for religious refugees, and to provide new resources for European nations convinced that only precious metals constituted wealth. Colonial agriculture was intended not only to feed the colonists but also to produce cash crops and to supply food for the home country. This meant cultivation of such crops as sugar, cotton, tobacco, and tea, and production of animal products such as wool and hides.

From the 15th to the 19th century the slave trade provided laborers needed to fill the large workforce required by colonial plantations. Many early slaves replaced indigenous peoples who died from diseases carried by the colonists or were killed by hard agricultural labor to which they were unaccustomed. Slaves from Africa worked, for example, on sugar plantations in the Caribbean region and on indigo and cotton plantations in what would become the southern United States. Native Americans were virtually enslaved in Mexico. Indentured slaves from Europe, especially from the prisons of Great Britain, provided both skilled and unskilled labor to many colonies. Both slavery and serfdom were substantially wiped out in the 19th century. See Peonage; Plantation; Slavery.




When encountered by the Spanish conquistadors, the more advanced Native Americans in the New World—the Aztec , Inca, and Maya—already had intensive agricultural economies, but no draft or riding animals and no wheeled vehicles. Squash, beans, peas, and corn had long since been domesticated. Land was owned by clans and other kinship groups or by ruling tribes that had formed sophisticated governments, but not by individuals or individual families. Several civilizations had risen and fallen in Central and South America by the 16th century.

The scientific revolution resulting from the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment in Europe encouraged experimentation in agriculture as well as in other fields. Trial-and-error efforts in plant breeding produced improved crops, and a few new strains of cattle and sheep were developed. Notable was the Guernsey cattle breed, which is still a heavy milk producer. Land enclosure was increasingly practiced in the 18th century, enabling individual landowners to determine the disposition of cultivated land and pasture that previously had been subject to common use. Crop rotation, involving alternation of legumes with grain, was more readily practiced outside the village strip system inherited from the manorial period. In England, where scientific farming was most efficient, enclosure brought about a fundamental reorganization of land ownership.

From 1660 large landowners had begun to add to their properties, frequently at the expense of small independent farmers. By the mid-19th century the agricultural pattern was based on the relationship between the
landowner, dependent on rents; the farmer, producer of crops; and the landless laborer, the hired hand of American farming lore. Drainage brought more land into cultivation, and, with the Industrial Revolution, farm machinery was introduced. It is not possible to fix a clear decade or series of events as the start of the agricultural revolution through technology.

Among the important advances were the purposeful selective breeding of livestock, begun in the early 1700s, and the spreading of limestone on farm soils in the late 1700s. Mechanical improvements in the traditional wooden plow began in the mid-1600s with small iron points fastened onto the wood with strips of leather. In 1797, Charles New-bold, a blacksmith in Burlington, New Jersey, re conceived of the cast-iron moldboard plow (first used in China nearly 2,000 years earlier). John Deere, another American blacksmith, further improved the plow in the 1830s and manufactured it in steel. Other notable inventions included the seed drill of English farmer Jethro Tull, developed in the early 1700s and progressively improved for more than a century; the reaper of American Cyrus McCormick in 1831; and numerous new horse-drawn threshers, cultivators, grain and grass cutters, rakes, and corn shellers. By the late 1800s, steam power was frequently used to replace animal power in drawing plows and in operating threshing machinery.




The demand for food for urban workers and raw materials for industrial plants produced a realignment of world trade. Science and technology developed for industrial purposes were adapted for agriculture, eventually resulting in the agribusinesses of the mid-20th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries the first systematic attempts were made to study and control pests. Before this time, handpicking and spraying were the usual methods of pest control. In the 19th century, poisons of various types were developed for use in sprays, and biological controls such as predatory insects were also used. Resistant plant varieties were cultivated; this was particularly successful with the European grapevine, in which the grape-bearing stems were grafted onto resistant American rootstocks to defeat the Phylloxera aphid.

Improvements in transportation affected agriculture. Roads, canals, and rail lines enabled farmers to obtain needed supplies from remote suppliers and market their produce over a wider area. Food could be protected during transport more economically than before as the result of rail, ship, and refrigeration developments in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Efficient use of these developments led to increasing specialization and eventual changes in the location of agricultural suppliers. In the last quarter of the 19th century, for example, Australian and North American suppliers displaced European suppliers of grain in the European market. When grain production proved unprofitable for European farmers, or an area became more urbanized, specialization in dairying, cheese making, and other products was emphasized.

The impetus toward increased food production following World War II (1939-1945) was a result of a new population explosion. A so-called green revolution, involving selective breeding of traditional crops for high yields, new hybrids, and intensive cultivation methods adapted to the climates and cultural conditions of densely populated countries such as India, temporarily stemmed the pressure for more food. A worldwide shortage of petroleum in the mid-1970s, however, reduced the supplies of nitrogen fertilizer essential for the success of the new varieties. Simultaneously, erratic weather and natural disasters such as drought and floods reduced crop levels throughout the world. Famine became common in many parts of Africa south of the Sahara. Economic conditions, particularly uncontrolled inflation, threatened the food supplier and the consumer alike. These problems became the determinants of agricultural change and development.




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Feudal Agriculture History Briefly Explained https://myhackstuff.com/feudal-agriculture-history-briefly-explained/ https://myhackstuff.com/feudal-agriculture-history-briefly-explained/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 10:29:20 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=933 The feudal period in Europe began soon after the fall of the Roman Empire, reaching its height about AD 1100. This period was also marked by development of the Byzantine Empire (late roman empire with its capital constanipole) and the power of the Saracens (Muslim opposing Christian crusade) in the Middle East and southern Europe. …

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The feudal period in Europe began soon after the fall of the Roman Empire, reaching its height about AD 1100. This period was also marked by development of the Byzantine Empire (late roman empire with its capital constanipole) and the power of the Saracens (Muslim opposing Christian crusade) in the Middle East and southern Europe. Agriculture in Spain, Italy, and southern France, in particular, was affected by events outside continental Europe. As the Arab influence extended to Egypt and later Spain, irrigation was extended to previously sterile or unproductive land. In Egypt, grain production was sufficient to allow the country to sell wheat in international markets. In Spain, vineyards were planted on sloping land, and irrigation water was brought from the mountains to the plains.

In some areas of the Middle East, oranges, lemons, peaches, and apricots were cultivated. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, and vegetables such as spinach and artichokes, as well as the characteristic Spanish flavoring saffron, were produced. The silkworm was raised and its food, the mulberry tree, was grown. By the 12th century agriculture in the Middle East had become static, and Mesopotamia declined to subsistence production levels when irrigation systems were destroyed by invading Mongols.

The Crusades, however, increased European contact with Islamic lands and familiarized western Europe with citrus fruits and silk and cotton textiles. The structure of agriculture was not uniform. In Scandinavia (Norway Sweden and Denmark) and eastern Germany, the small farms and villages of previous years remained. In mountainous areas and in the marshlands of Slavic (Bulgaria, Russia and polish) Europe, the manorial system could not flourish.




A manor required roughly 350 to 800 hectares (about 900 to 2,000 acres) of arable land and the same amount of other prescribed lands, such as wetlands, wood lots, and pasture. Typically, the manor was a self-contained community. On it was the large home of the holder of the fief—a military or church vassal of rank, sometimes given the title lord—or of his steward. A parish church was frequently included, and the manor might make up the entire parish. One or more villages might be located on the manor, and village peasants were the actual farmers.

Under the direction of an overseer, they produced the crops, raised the meat and draft animals, and paid taxes in services, either forced labor on the lord’s lands and other properties or in forced military service. A large manor had a mill for grinding grain, an oven for baking bread, fishponds, orchards, perhaps a winepress or oil press, and herb and vegetable gardens. Bees were kept to produce honey. Woolen garments were produced from sheep raised on the manor. The wool was spun into yarn, woven into cloth, and then sewn into clothing.

Linen textiles could also be produced from flax, which was grown for its oil and fiber.
The food served in a feudal castle or manor house varied according to the season and the lord’s hunting prowess. Hunting for meat was, indeed, the major nonmilitary work of the lord and his military retainers. The castle residents could also eat domestic ducks, pheasants, pigeons, geese, hens, and partridges; fish, pork, beef, and mutton; and cabbages, turnips, carrots, onions, beans, and peas. Bread, cheese and butter, ale and wine, and apples and pears also appeared on the table. In southern Europe olives and olive oil might be used, often instead of butter.

Leather was produced from the manor’s cattle. Horses and oxen were the beasts of burden; as heavier horses were bred and a new kind of harness was developed, they became more important. A blacksmith, wheelwright, and carpenter made and maintained crude agricultural tools.

The cultivation regime was rigidly prescribed. The arable land was divided into three fields: one sown in the autumn in wheat or rye; a second sown in the spring in barley, rye, oats, beans, or peas; and the third left fallow. The fields were laid out in strips distributed over the three fields, and without hedges or fences to separate one strip from another. Each male peasant head of household was allotted about 30 strips. Helped by his family and a yoke of oxen, he worked under the direction of the lord’s officials. When he worked on his own fields, if he had any, he followed village custom that was probably as rigid as the rule of an overseer.




About the 8th century a four-year cycle of rotation of fallow appeared. The annual plowing routine on 400 hectares would be 100 hectares plowed in the autumn and 100 in the spring, and 200 hectares of fallow plowed in June. These three periods of plowing, over the year, could produce two crops on 200 hectares, depending on the weather. Typically, ten or more oxen were hitched to the tongue of the plow, often little more than a forked tree trunk. The oxen were no larger than modern heifers. At harvest time, all the peasants, including women and children, were expected to work in the fields. After the harvest, the community’s animals were let loose on the fields to forage.

Some manors used a strip system. Each strip, with an area of roughly 0.4 hectare (about 1 acre), measured about 200 m (about 220 yd) in length and from 1.2 to 5 m (4 to 16.5 ft) in width. The lord’s strips were similar to those of the peasants distributed throughout good and bad field areas. The parish priest might have lands separate from the community fields or strips that he worked himself or that were worked by the peasants.
In all systems, the lord’s fields and needs came first, but about three days a week might be left for work on the family strips and garden plots. Wood and peat for fuel were gathered from the commonly held wood lots, and animals were pastured on village meadows.

When surpluses of grain, hides, and wool were produced, they were sent to market.
In about 1300 a tendency developed to enclose the common lands and to raise sheep for their wool alone. The rise of the textile industry made sheep raising more profitable in England, Flanders (now in Belgium), Champagne (France), Tuscany and Lombardy (Italy), and the Augsburg region of Germany. At the same time, regions about the medieval towns began to specialize in garden produce and dairy products. Independent manorialism was also affected by the wars of 14th- and 15th-century Europe and by the widespread plague outbreaks of the 14th century. Villages were wiped out, and much arable land was abandoned.

The remaining peasants were discontented and attempted to improve their conditions. With the decline in the labor force, only the best land was kept in cultivation. In southern Italy, for instance, irrigation helped increase production on the more fertile soils. The emphasis on grain was replaced by diversification, and items requiring more care were produced, such as wine, oil, cheese, butter, and vegetables.

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Agriculture History Through Roman Period https://myhackstuff.com/agriculture-history-roman-period/ https://myhackstuff.com/agriculture-history-roman-period/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 10:02:06 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=928 With the close of the Neolithic period and the introduction of metals, the age of innovation in agriculture was largely over. The historical period—known through written and pictured materials, including the Bible; Middle Eastern records and monuments; and Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings—was highlighted by agricultural improvements. A few high points must serve to outline the …

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With the close of the Neolithic period and the introduction of metals, the age of innovation in agriculture was largely over. The historical period—known through written and pictured materials, including the Bible; Middle Eastern records and monuments; and Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings—was highlighted by agricultural improvements. A few high points must serve to outline the development of worldwide agriculture in this era, roughly defined as 2500 BC to AD 500. For a similar period of development in Central and South America, somewhat later in date Some plants became newly prominent. Grapes and wine were mentioned in Egyptian records about 2900 BC, and trade in olive oil and wine was widespread in the Mediterranean area by the 1st millennium BC. Rye and oats were cultivated in northern Europe about 1000 BC.

Many vegetables and fruits, including onions, melons, and cucumbers, were grown by the 3rd millennium BC in Ur (now Iraq). Dates and figs were an important source of sugar in the Middle East, and apples, pomegranates, peaches, and mulberries were grown in the Mediterranean area. Cotton was grown and spun in India about 2000 BC, and linen and silk were used extensively in 2nd-millennium BC China. Felt was made from the wool of sheep in Central Asia and the Russian steppes. The horse, introduced to Egypt about 1600 BC, was already domesticated in Mesopotamia and Asia Minor.

The ox-drawn four-wheeled cart for farm work and two-wheeled chariots drawn by horses were familiar in northern India in the 2nd millennium BC. Improvements in tools and implements were particularly important. Tools of bronze and iron were longer lasting and more efficient, and cultivation was greatly improved by such aids as the ox-drawn plow fitted with an iron-tipped point, noted in the 10th century BC in Palestine. In Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC a funnel-like device was attached to the plow to aid in seeding, and other early forms of seed drills were used in China. Farmers in China further improved efficiency with the invention of a cast-iron moldbar plow.




Threshing was also done with animal power in Palestine and Mesopotamia, although reaping, binding, and winnowing were still done by hand. Egypt retained hand seeding through this period on individual farm plots and large estates alike. Storage methods for oil and grain were improved. Granaries—jars, dry cisterns, silos, and bins containing stored grain—provided food for city populations. Without adequate food supplies and trade in both food and nonfood items, the high civilizations of Mesopotamia, northern India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome would not have been possible. Irrigation systems in China, Egypt, and the Middle East were refined and expanded, putting more land into cultivation. The forced labor of peasants and the growth of bureaucracies to plan and supervise work on irrigation systems were probably basic in the development of the city-states of Sumer (now Iraq and Kuwait).

Windmills and water mills, developed toward the end of the Roman period, increased control over the many uncertainties of weather. The introduction of fertilizer, mostly animal manures, and the rotation of fallow and crop land increased crop production. Mixed farming and stock raising, which were flourishing in the British Isles and on the continent of Europe as far north as Scandinavia at the beginning of the historical period, already displayed a pattern that persisted throughout the next 3,000 years. In many regions, fishing and hunting supplemented the food grown by farmers.About AD 100 Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus described the Germans as a tribal society of free peasant warriors who cultivated their own lands or left them to fight. About 500 years later, a characteristic European village had a cluster of houses in the middle, surrounded by rudely cultivated fields comprising individually owned farmlands; and meadows, woods, and wasteland were used by the entire community. Oxen and plow were passed from one field to another, and harvesting was a cooperative effort.

The Roman Empire appears to have started as a rural agricultural society of independent farmers. In the 1st millennium BC, after the city of Rome was established, however, agriculture started a development that reached a peak in the Christian era. Large estates (sector of society with some political power} that supplied grain to the cities of the empire were owned by absentee landowners and cultivated by slave labor under the supervision of hired overseers. As slaves, usually war captives, decreased in number, tenants replaced them. The late Roman villa of the Christian era approached the medieval ( old fashion or middle age in Europe) manor (noble house and land) in organization; slaves and dependent tenants were forced to work on a fixed schedule, and tenants paid a predetermined share to the estate owner. By the 4th century AD, serfdom was well established, and the former tenant was attached to the land.




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Agriculture History Briefly Explained https://myhackstuff.com/agriculture-history-briefly-explained/ https://myhackstuff.com/agriculture-history-briefly-explained/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:51:22 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=925 You can read first component of this article here for other four articles you need to to click on the link you want know more about that component. The history of agriculture may be divided into five broad periods of unequal length, differing widely in date according to region: 1. Prehistoric, 2. History through the …

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You can read first component of this article here for other four articles you need to to click on the link you want know more about that component. The history of agriculture may be divided into five broad periods of unequal length, differing widely in date according to region:
1. Prehistoric,
2. History through the Roman period,
3. Feudal,
4. Scientific,
5. Industrial.
A counter trend to industrial agriculture, known as sustainable (exploiting natural resources without destroying ecological balance of an area), agriculture or organic farming, may represent yet another period in agricultural history.

PREHISTORIC

Early farmers were, archaeologists agree, largely of Neolithic culture (latest period of stone age, between about 8000 BC and 5000 BC,characterized by the development of settled agriculture and use of polished stone tools and weapon) Sites occupied by such people are located in southwestern Asia in what are now Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey ; in southeastern Asia, in what is now Thailand; in Africa, along the Nile River in Egypt; and in Europe, along the Danube River and in Macedonia, Thrace, and Thessaly (historic regions of southeastern Europe).

Early centers of agriculture have also been identified in the Huang He (Yellow River) area of China; the Indus River valley of India and Pakistan; and the Tehuacán Valley of Mexico, northwest of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The dates of domesticated plants and animals vary with the regions, but most predate the 6th millennium BC, and the earliest may date from 10,000 BC. Scientists have carried out carbon-14 testing of animal and plant remains and have dated finds of domesticated sheep at 9000 BC in northern Iraq; cattle in the 6th millennium BC in northeastern Iran; goats at 8000 BC in central Iran; pigs at 8000 BC in Thailand and 7000 BC in Thessaly; onagers, or asses, at 7000 BC in Iraq; and horses around 4000 BC in central Asia. The llama and alpaca were domesticated in the Andean regions of South America by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC.




According to carbon dating, wheat and barley were domesticated in the Middle East in the 8th millennium BC; millet and rice in China and Southeast Asia by 5500 BC; and squash in Mexico about 8000 BC. Legumes found in Thessaly and Macedonia are dated as early as 6000 BC. Flax was grown and apparently woven into textiles early in the Neolithic Period.

The transition from hunting and food gathering to dependence on food production was gradual, and in a few isolated parts of the world this transition has not yet been accomplished. Crops and domestic meat supplies were augmented by fish and wildfowl as well as by the meat of wild animals. The farmer began, most probably, by noting which of the wild plants were edible or otherwise useful and learned to save the seed and to replant it in cleared land. Lengthy cultivation of the most prolific and hardiest plants yielded stable strains. Herds of goats and sheep were assembled from captured young wild animals, and those with the most useful traits—such as small horns and high milk production—were bred. The wild aurochs was the ancestor of European cattle, and an Asian wild ox of the zebu, was the ancestor of the humped cattle of Asia. Cats, dogs, and chickens were also domesticated very early.

Neolithic farmers lived in simple dwellings—caves and small houses of sun baked mud brick or reed and wood. These homes were grouped into small villages or existed as single farmsteads surrounded by fields, sheltering animals and humans in adjacent or joined buildings. In the Neolithic Period, the growth of cities such as Jericho (founded about 9000 BC) was stimulated by the production of surplus crops.
Pastoralism (individual country living) may have been a later development. Evidence indicates that mixed farming, combining cultivation of crops and stock rising, was the most common Neolithic pattern. Nomadic herders, however, roamed (wander aimlessly) the steppes (tree less plains covered by grasses} of Europe and Asia, where the horse and camel were domesticated.

The earliest tools of the farmer were made of wood and stone. They included the stone adz, an ax like tool with blades at right angles to the handle, used for woodworking; the sickle or reaping knife with sharpened stone blades, used to gather grain; the digging stick, used to plant seeds and, with later adaptations, as a spade or hoe; and a rudimentary plow, a modified tree branch used to scratch the surface of the soil and prepare it for planting. The plow was later adapted for pulling by oxen.




The hilly areas of southwestern Asia and the forests of Europe had enough rain to sustain agriculture, but Egypt
depended on the annual floods of the Nile River to replenish soil moisture and fertility. The inhabitants of the Fertile
Crescent around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East also depended on annual floods to supply irrigation water. Drainage was necessary to prevent the erosion of land from the hillsides through which the rivers flowed. The farmers who lived in the area near the Huang He developed a system of irrigation and drainage to control the damage caused to their fields in the flood plain of the meandering river.

Although Neolithic settlements were more permanent than the camps of hunting peoples, villages had to be moved
periodically in some areas when the fields lost their fertility from continuous cropping. This was most necessary in northern Europe, where fields were produced by the slash-and-burn method of clearing. Settlements along the Nile River, however, were more permanent, because the river deposited fertile silt annually.



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Modern and World Agriculture Explained Breifly https://myhackstuff.com/modern-world-agriculture/ https://myhackstuff.com/modern-world-agriculture/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:34:14 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=919 Modern agriculture depends heavily on engineering and technology and on the biological and physical sciences. Irrigation, drainage, conservation, and sanitary engineering—each of which is important in successful farming—are some of the fields requiring the specialized knowledge of agricultural engineers. Agricultural chemistry deals with other vital farming concerns, such as the application of fertilizer, insecticides (see …

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Modern agriculture depends heavily on engineering and technology and on the biological and physical sciences. Irrigation, drainage, conservation, and sanitary engineering—each of which is important in successful farming—are some of the fields requiring the specialized knowledge of agricultural engineers. Agricultural chemistry deals with other vital farming concerns, such as the application of fertilizer, insecticides (see Pest Control), and fungicides, soil makeup, analysis of agricultural products, and nutritional needs of farm animals. Plant breeding and genetics contribute immeasurably to farm productivity.

Genetics has also made a science of livestock breeding. Hydroponics, a method of soilless gardening in which
plants are grown in chemical nutrient solutions, may help meet the need for greater food production as the world’s
population increases. The packing, processing, and marketing of agricultural products are closely related activities also influenced by science. Methods of quick-freezing and dehydration have increased the markets for farm products.

Mechanization, the outstanding characteristic of late 19th- and 20th-century agriculture, has eased much of the backbreaking toil(involving enormous physical effort) of the farmer. More significantly, mechanization has enormously increased farm efficiency (desired result without using much effort) and productivity (rate of production). Animals including horses, oxen, llamas, alpacas, and dogs, however, are still used to cultivate fields, harvest crops, and transport farm products to markets in many parts of the world.




Airplanes and helicopters are employed in agriculture for seeding, spraying operations for insect and disease control, transporting perishable products, and fighting forest fires. Increasingly satellites are being used to monitor crop yields. Radio and television disseminate vital weather reports and other information such as market reports that
concern farmers. Computers have become an essential tool for farm management.

WORLD AGRICULTURE

Over the 10,000 years since agriculture began to be developed, peoples everywhere have discovered the food value of wild plants and animals, and domesticated and bred them. The most important crops are cereals such as wheat, rice, barley, corn, and rye; sugarcane and sugar beets; meat animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs or swine; poultry such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys; animal products such as milk, cheese, and eggs; and nuts and oils. Fruits, vegetables, and olives are also major foods for people. Feed grains for animals include soybeans, field corn, and sorghum. Agricultural income is also derived from nonfood crops such as rubber, fiber plants, tobacco, and oil seeds used in synthetic chemical compounds, as well as animals raised for pelts(animal skin).

Conditions that determine what is raised in an area include climate, water supply and waterworks, terrain, and ecology. In 2003, 44 percent of the world’s labor force was employed in agriculture. The distribution ranged from 66 percent of the economically active population in sub-Saharan Africa (mali, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe etc) to less than 3 percent in the United States and Canada. In Asia and the Pacific the figure was 60 percent; in Latin America and the Caribbean, 19 percent; and in Europe, 9 percent. Farm size varies widely from region to region. In the early
2000s the average for Canadian farms was about 273 hectares (about 675 acres) per farm; for farms in the United States, 180 hectares (440 acres). By contrast, the average size of a single land holding in India was 2 hectares (about 5 acres).




Size also depends on the purpose of the farm. Commercial farming, or production for cash, usually takes place on large holdings. The latifundia of Latin America are large, privately owned estates worked by tenant labor. Single-crop
plantations produce tea, rubber, and cocoa. Wheat farms are most efficient when they comprise thousands of hectares and can be worked by teams of people and machines. Australian sheep stations and other livestock farms must be large to provide grazing for thousands of animals. Individual subsistence(condition of managing to stay alive) farms or small-family mixed-farm operations are decreasing in number in developed countries but are still numerous in the developing countries of Africa and Asia. Nomadic herders range over large areas in sub-Saharan Africa, Afghanistan, and Lapland (region largely within the arctic circle, extending across the northern parts of Norway,Sweden, finland and the Kola peninsula of Russia.) ; and herding is a major part of agriculture in such areas as Mongolia. Much of the foreign exchange earned by a country may be derived from a single agricultural commodity; for example, Sri Lanka depends on tea, Denmark specializes in dairy products, Australia in wool, and New Zealand and Argentina in meat products. In the United States, wheat, corn, and soybeans have become major foreign exchange commodities in recent decades.

The importance of an individual country as an exporter of agricultural products depends on many variables. Among them is the possibility that the country is too little developed industrially to produce manufactured goods in sufficient quantity or technical sophistication (advance technical development). Such agricultural exporters include Ghana, with cocoa, and Myanmar (formerly Burma), with rice. However, a developed country may produce surpluses that are not needed by its own population; this is the case with the United States, Canada, and some other countries. Because nations depend on agriculture not only for food but for national income and raw materials for industry as well, trade in agriculture is a constant international concern. It is regulated by the World Trade Organization.




The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (to eliminate hunger on world scale main headquarter is Rome, Italy) directs much attention to agricultural trade and policies. According to the FAO, world agricultural production, stimulated by improving technology, grew steadily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Per capita food production saw sustained growth in Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and the Pacific areas (surrounding pacific ocean), and limited growth in the Near East ( middle east) and North Africa. The only region not to experience growth during the 1980s and 1990s was sub-Saharan Africa, which suffered from climatic conditions that
made agriculture difficult. Although agricultural growth began to taper off in the year 2000, it continued to outpace world population growth.

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Agriculture: Everything You Need to Know about https://myhackstuff.com/agriculture-everything-need-know/ https://myhackstuff.com/agriculture-everything-need-know/#respond Wed, 21 Mar 2018 09:25:57 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=916 t is the science in art of farming including the work of cultivating the soil, producing the crops and raising livestock. It has two main branches 1. Crops 2. Animals Forestry 2. Crops Animals 1. Fisheries 2. Livestock Components of agriculture It has four components 1. Crops 54 % 2. Livestock 41 % 3. Fisheries …

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t is the science in art of farming including the work of cultivating the soil, producing the crops and raising livestock.
It has two main branches

1. Crops

2. Animals

  1. Forestry
    2. Crops
    Animals
    1. Fisheries
    2. Livestock
    Components of agriculture
    It has four components
    1. Crops 54 %
    2. Livestock 41 %
    3. Fisheries 4.5 %
    4. Forestry .5 %

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
1. Supply or provide us food and fiber
2. Contributes about 25 % in GDP
3. Agriculture provides raw materials to industries.
4. Agriculture provides 80 % in foreign exchange.
5. 45 % labor force in Pakistan are engaged in agriculture
6. It is backbone of our country.

AGRONOMY
It is derived from Greek word agro—field Nomo’s –manage—so development and management of
crop and soil sciences to produce abundant high quality food and fibers in a protected
environment. Students who study agronomy are called agronomist.

Causes of low yield in Pakistan
Maize is 70 % less than America and Canada.
Our yield is low because low soil fertility. Our soil is 60 percent deficient in nutrients.




Low yielding varieties.
Poor agronomic practices
Farmers are illiterate
Application of water, harvesting of crops, attacks of insects, diseases, weeds
Non availability of seed.
Non availability of chemicals
Un availability of inputs
Low income
Water logging, salinity
Small land holdings
Lack of agro based industry.
Lack of storage, transport facilities and next one is weak govt policy.
Natural disaster, drought and
In case of KPK rains has not occurred in time

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR INCREASING YIELD
1. Use of high yielding variety
2. Proper tillage practices
3. Prepare seed bed properly
4. Balance fertilizers
5. Proper irrigation
6. Control of pest and diseases, weeds.
7. Proper time sowing
8. Time of harvesting.
9. Proper seed rate
10. Crop rotation-growing of crops one after the other in regular sequence in order to keep in view that fertility of
soil may not disturb.
11. Multiple cropping system

Our lands are so small because of small holdings and because of population we in Pakistan grow more crops in one year.
America grow only one crop in a year called mono cropping

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How to Perform Browser Autopwn using Metasploit https://myhackstuff.com/browser-autopwn-metasploit/ https://myhackstuff.com/browser-autopwn-metasploit/#respond Sat, 03 Feb 2018 09:47:04 +0000 https://myhackstuff.com/?p=902 Let us discuss about performing browser autopwn that how this module works. This auxiliary module used for performing client-side attacks. Now we need to explore how this module works. Following are steps of browser autopwn. Attacker/Penetration Tester executes the browser_autopwn auxiliary module. Web server is started (on the attacker’s system), which hosts a payload which is accessible …

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Let us discuss about performing browser autopwn that how this module works. This auxiliary module used for performing client-side attacks. Now we need to explore how this module works. Following are steps of browser autopwn.

  • Attacker/Penetration Tester executes the browser_autopwn auxiliary module.
  • Web server is started (on the attacker’s system), which hosts a payload which is accessible over a specific crafted URL.
  • Attacker sends specially generated URL to his/her victim.
  • When victim tries to open URL, and the payload gets downloaded on his system.
  • If the victim’s browser is vulnerable, the exploit will be successful and the attacker gets a meterpreter shell.

First launch Metasploit using msfconsole command then select the browser_autopwn module by entering the use auxiliary/server/browser_autopwn command. Learn bypassing antivirus programs here.



Then, configure the value of the LHOST variable and run the auxiliary module as you can see in the following screenshot:

browser autopwn

After Launching the browser autopwn auxiliary module it will create many different instances of exploit/payload combinations as the victim might be using any kind of browser:

browser autopwn

When our victim opened up an Internet Explorer/browser and tried to hit the malicious URL http://192.168.44.134:8080 (that we setup using the browser_autopwn auxiliary module) and we will get a meterpreter shell. The ultimate output is shown below.

browser autopwn

Thanks for reading now let me recommend you some other practical guides about penetration testing of Remote Access Protocols, Remote Desktop ProtocolSSH Network Protocol, Network RoutersWordPress website using WPSeku,

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